This article is probably a compression of the ebook, which I would like to release in the nearest future about the 500 spots, from where you could observe both annular and total solar eclipses worldwide in the 2021-2040 period. I have inspiration from the Sky and Telescope magazine, which has prepared recently a similar list of objects for the 2023 and 2024 American eclipses as well as the Astronomy.com magazine, which did the same for the 2024 Great North American Eclipse. I am going a few steps forward and trying to show an analogous list not for these 2 but for all annular and total solar eclipses which will occur in the nearest…20 years!
Following Fred Espenak’s World Atlas of Solar Eclipse Paths (Pic. 1), we have roughly 28 eclipses, but about 25 have been considered here because some of them don’t have remarkable objects on their paths.
My form of description has a general character. It’s not granular enough, because it doesn’t contain i.e. orientation of the spot against the Sun at the moment of the eclipse. This is stuff I would like to describe roughly in the ebook mentioned above. My goal here is to list all the most beautiful places, which might be potentially occupied at the time of the eclipse. However, it should reward unusual images of these places with an eclipsed Sun beyond. All the eclipse paths have been rendered from Xavier Jubier’s website (xjubier.free.fr), which appears to be the world’s best database of solar eclipses. All of the interesting places have been provided by tourist websites like CultureTrip, TheCrazyTourist, or PlanetWare, from where I used to pick up the most common “Top 15 or Top 20” from the given country or state. It also explains the various distribution of these places worldwide.
I. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF DECEMBER 4, 2021
Union Glacier is one of the most recognizable glaciers in Antarctica. This large crevassed area is located at the edge of the 2021 path of totality, where the maximum duration won’t exceed 1 minute. The Union Glacier Camp is located at the brink of Ellsworth Mountains the highest range in Antarctica, in which the Vinson massif is located about 150km away. It will be enough to enjoy a spectacular eclipse view at an altitude of 14°. Regarding Vinson – the highest peak of Antarctica, rising 4892m.a.s.l. the greatest eclipse will allow someone to see Baily’s Beads (obscuration 99,3%).
II. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF OCTOBER 14, 2023
2. Crater Lake National Park – covers the deepest lake in the United States (594m) and the second deepest in North America. The lake is the remnant of Mount Mazama volcano, which collapsed about 7700 years ago and resulted in the creation of this deep lake. Today the caldera rim rises between 2100 and 2400m.a.s.l. (up to 400m above the lake surface) making the local landscape beautiful and perfectly suitable for the 2023 annular solar eclipse observation, which maximum will occur about 19° above the horizon.
3. Bryce Canyon National Park – embraces the Bryce Canyon, which is famous for a multitude of giant natural amphitheaters, surmounted mostly by hoodoos – geological structures, which look like protruding spires of rock. Moreover, the spectacular views are stressed by the red, orange, and white colors of the rocks, reflecting the geological structure of this local area. This picture-perfect geological spot, combined with the remote view towards Navajo Mountain and Canaan Peak will be best suited for the annular solar eclipse observation in 2023, which will occur late morning at 30° solar altitude.
4. Canyonlands National Park – this colorful landscape criss-crossed by numerous deep canyons can be also a fabulous place for the annular eclipse observation. This is the place where the Green River approaches the Colorado River. Presumably, the best place for eclipse observation is Mesa Arch with a spectacular view of the canyons. The solar altitude will be about 31° at the greatest phase of annularity.
5. Rainbow Bridge National Monument – another nice place to visit, especially when we can combine our view with the ring of fire, located just 31° above the horizon. The Rainbow Bridge is built from the sandstone originally deposited by wind as sand dunes between the Triassic and Jurassic periods. During the last ice age, the Bridge Creek flowed towards the Colorado River and carved softer rocks, making finally the hairpin bend.
6. Monument Valley – it’s a beautiful cluster of vast sandstone buttes, reaching up to 300m above the valley floor. Their characteristic feature is the vivid red color, being derivative from iron oxide exposed in the weathered siltstone. This is an icon of the American West, which definitely should be considered as an observation spot for the 2023 ring of fire, which will shine about 32 deg above the south-eastern horizon.
B. LATIN AND SOUTH AMERICA
7. Uxmal (Mexico) – An ancient Maya city located in the Yucatan Peninsula. It’s considered one of the major archeological sites of the Maya culture next to i.e. Calakmul, located also within the path of annularity, but with rather no chance of combining the site with a ring of fire in one shot. Uxmal was founded around 500AD and grew to the most powerful site in western Yucatan ruling above a whole North Maya area. The main building is the Governor’s palace rising above the huge, green platform. The greatest eclipse will occur when the Sun is located around 61° above the horizon.
8. Coffee Cultural Landscape (Columbia) – The big area spans over 140000ha of coffee plantations on the eastern slopes of the Andes. The coffee plantations have been developed here for about 150 years. Because of unfavorable topography, the coffee fields look like small orthogonal plot layouts. The annular solar eclipse will occur in the early afternoon when the Sun will shine around 61° above the horizon.
9. Cano Cristales [Chrystal Channel] (Columbia) – the river called the “River of Five Colors” or the “Liquid Rainbow” is noted for striking colors, especially between late June and November. The predominant colors are red, blue, orange, yellow, and green. It’s an original case worldwide, not observed elsewhere. This is a fast-flowing river with many waterfalls and giant kettles. The river is extremely clear, which results in a wide variety of aquatic plants, where the most representative is the endemic Macarenia Clavigera, giving the river a pink coloration. Because of the beautiful landscape of the river waterfalls and forests around, it can be an unusual place to watch the 2023 ring of fire shining 58° above the horizon in the afternoon.
10. Chiribiquete National Park (Columbia) – the largest tropical rainforest park in the world, located in the northwest Amazon. The park features high table mountains, known from the USA as buttes, but called the “Tepui” in the Amazonas region. They rise up to 650-670m.a.s.l and at least 300m above the ground level. Their prominence might be helpful with staggering nice images of the annular solar eclipse, which will peak in the afternoon when the Sun will be at around 55° altitude.
III. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF APRIL 8, 2024 (GREAT NORTH AMERICAN ECLIPSE)
11. Niagara Falls (USA/Canada) – the wide waterfalls occurring at the Niagara River channel, which connects the lakes Erie and Ontario. Niagara is made of 3 separate waterfalls. According to the Travel Channel, Niagara Falls is the second largest waterfall in the world after Victoria Falls in Africa. The cliffs reach more than 360m and the whole waterfall system stretches at around 840m. The water rushes over the falls at about 40km/h forming the specific water droplet environment, which is able to “create” a beautiful rainbow. Shall we see this rainbow also during the 2024 totality at about 45° altitude? Who knows. Since solar corona shines almost as the full Moon maybe it’s possible then…
12. Mount Royal Park in Montreal (Canada) – is situated within the large intrusive hill towering above Montreal – the biggest city, which lies within the path of 2024 totality within Canadian borders. The hill is a remnant of a vast volcano, which existed here around 125 million years ago. We can find here the similarity with Castle Rock in Edinburgh, where a beautiful castle is located. In this case, we have a beautiful park with a splendid panoramic view of Montreal downtown. If you are Canadian-based, you should definitely consider this location for admiring the 2024 total solar eclipse. The non-central location against the totality will result from the spectacular shading and re-illuminating of the Montreal skyline during the April 8 afternoon, when the Sun will be as high as 40° above the horizon.
IV. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF OCTOBER 2, 2024
13. Easter Island [Rapa Nui] – one of the most isolated places in the World, which surmounts the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania from the southeast. The island is famous for its nearly 1000 extant monumental statues, created by the early Rapa Nui people. The island has a volcanic origin. Because of its renowned heritage landscape, it can be the perfect place for combining our moai (monolithic human figures) shots with the ring of fire, shortly after midday at an altitude of about 70°.
14. Laguna San Rafael National Park [Parque Nacional Laguna San Rafael] – the park envelopes the San Rafael Lagoon originated from the retreating San Rafael Glacier. The principal attraction apart from the beautiful glacial and mountainous landscape is the 16km length fiord. The best conditions for combining the glacial landscape with annularity will be from the east, as the eclipse will occur in the late afternoon at around 25° altitude.
V. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF AUGUST 12, 2026
15. Tower of Hercules – it’s the oldest known extant lighthouse, built yet in Roman times. It’s known to have existed by the Ist century. According to one myth, the hero Hercules defeated the giant tyrant Geryon after three days and three nights of continuous battle. Next Hercules buried the head of Geryon, which is memorialized in the coat of arms of the city of Coruna. Because the totality occurs at 12° above the horizon it appears to be the safest place for enjoying this astronomical event in Spain with this beautiful UNESCO landmark in the same frame.
16. Las Medulas – formerly the most important and the largest gold mine in the Roman Empire. The exploitation caused unusual air pollution, which was not reached again until the Industrial Revolution around 1700 years later. Today it’s a nice cultural landscape, where most of the implications of Roman mining have been preserved. It can be also a good spot for watching the 2026 totality when the Sun will be around 10° above the horizon.
17. Segovia – a famous city with a few historic landmarks, which clearly remember the Roman Empire, like the midtown Roman aqueduct known as the Aqueduct of Segovia. Other places worth significant attention are the Alcazar of Segovia perched on the stone peninsula and the Segovia Cathedral, which is the last Gothic cathedral built in Spain. The eclipse chasers have two options here, the first one is chasing the totality together with the aqueduct or with a panoramic view of the city (preferably from the Mirador de la Piedad) as a second option. The eclipsed Sun will be just 8° above the horizon.
18. Serra de Tramuntana – this UNESCO-awarded mountain range at Mallorca island has incredible potential for the 2026 total solar eclipse observation. First of all, we can watch how the crescent Sun’s glitter disappears and reappears at the Mediterranean waterbody from the highest peak – Puig Major, rising 1436m.a.s.l. Moreover, it’s also the place, where the most distant observation within one country has been captured. The other spectacular place finishes this range from north-east. It’s the Formentor peninsula, where the high rocky cliffs fall straight to the sea. The totality will occur shortly before sunset when the Sun will be as low as 2-3 ° above the horizon only. The Puig Major is potentially also a good spot for watching the ring of fire sunset on January 2028.
VI. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF FEBRUARY 6, 2027
19. Los Alerces National Park – it’s a beautiful place for someone, who loves geomorphology. The park abounds with a lot of postglacial terrain forms like moraines, glacial cirques, and clear-water lakes accompanied by temperate forests and alpine meadows at higher altitudes. The forests are rich with the Alerce trees, which are counterparts of the Sequoia trees in the USA. They reach an appreciable size and belong to the longest-living trees in the world. The annular eclipse will occur in the late morning when the Sun is at around 55° altitude.
B. CENTRAL AFRICA
20. Lake Nokoue (Benin) – the important source of food and economic activity for southern Benin. Lots of people are affiliated with fishing. The lake itself is a part of a lagoon surrounded by low-lying areas, which can be treated as the threat of flooding, as the climate gets warmer. The lake is surrounded also by cozy villages with a nice landscape of houses made of straw and standing on the water. It can be also a good place for the 2027 annular solar eclipse, especially since it occurs in the evening when the Sun will be merely 2° above the horizon.
21. Lagos – is the most populous city in Nigeria and the second-largest in Africa with a total population of about 8mln within the metropolis. It’s nowadays the financial center of Africa with a quite nice skyline, which can accompany the setting ring of fire on February 2027. Not to mention, that the city lies also within the path of 2034 totality.
VII. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF AUGUST 2, 2027
22. Ronda (Spain) – This beautiful city with a lot of Islamic heritage is known for the beautiful Puente Nuevo (New Bridge) built in the late XVIIIth century after 34 years. The bridge includes the chamber used for various purposes like a prison in the 1930s during the civil war. This is the most representative object in the town, as it’s located at the dramatic 120m chasm – El Tajo Gorge. The totality will occur at around 38° altitude above the southeastern horizon. It gives an option to catch both the eclipse and the bridge in one wide-angle frame.
23. Gibraltar (UK) – this is a British overseas territory, which can be recognized easily from the distance as the big rocky cliff, which is called the “Rock of Gibraltar“. This over 400m high protrusion can be a fantastic place for eclipse chasers, who want to combine a quite long duration of totality with a panoramic scene over the whole Gibraltar Strait, the Alboran Sea, and Morocco with towering Rif in the background. Both Gibraltar and Ronda will experience an annular solar eclipse just a half year later.
B. NORTH AFRICA
24. Tetouan (Morocco) – it’s a beautiful city with Medina placed on the UNESCO world’s heritage list. Most of the buildings are white, which corresponds to local tradition. On the other hand, white walls are supposed to cool down the indoor temperature, as the white surface reflects most of the solar energy. There are also other sites both within the city and just outside, like the Royal Palace, but the most important is the location itself. The city lies between two high mountains. The panoramic view with at least one of them can be interesting if we add up the totality at 38° altitude.
25. Chefcheaouen (Morocco) – another charming city in northern Morocco, which is famous for the blue walls of buildings. There are several theories as to why these walls are blue. One of them explains, that this color keeps mosquitos away. Another one states, that the blue color symbolizes the sky and heaven remaining people about their spiritual life. Because of this eye-catching mountainous landscape, we should consider this location for watching the 2027 totality at around 38° altitude.
26. Djurdjura National Park (Algeria) – The beautiful national park protecting the Djurdjura Mountains – the highest range in the Tell Atlas, which rises up to about 2300m.a.s.l. and features the Alpine-looking landscape, which is unique on the African mainland. On top of that, the sub-alpine forest is reached with the Lebanon cedars – endemics being typical only for the Atlas Mountain range. It can be a spectacular place for the 2027 totality, especially since the northern umbral limit will be clearly visible from the mountain tops. The totality will occur in the late morning at 48° altitude.
27. Beni Hammad Fort (Algeria) – the beautiful rouns of the fortified palatine city at the edge of the Sahara desert. It was a large military and powerful stronghold around 1,000 years ago. Today, we can see the ruins of 5 palaces with remnants of the Hommadid Mosque, which used to be the largest mosque in North Africa prior to the XXth century. Because of the prominence of this landmark, it also can be considered a nice spot for the 2027 total solar eclipse observation, which will occur in the late morning at around 50° altitude.
28. Chott el Djerid (Tunisia) – this large endorheic salt lake in southern Tunisia is also the biggest salt lake in Africa. This salt pan is around 250km overall in length. It’s easily accessible on foot and even by car. The location seems to be one of the best for the 2027 total solar eclipse observation, especially if you are planning some scientific experiments. The area features a typical desert climate with dense solar radiation during the day, which will be interrupted by umbra at an altitude of 53° above the southeastern horizon. The southern part of this lake will be outside of the path, which can be beneficial for some experimental purposes.
29. El Jem (Tunisia) – this is a former Thysdrus city – one of the most important in the region in Roman times. The biggest and most representative legacy of that time is the Amphitheater of El Jem erected in 238 AD. The estimated capacity is 35000 people and the total area is nearly 1.4 ha with a construction height – of 30m. It’s a good place to combine this beautiful landmark with a totally eclipsed Sun at 55° altitude above the horizon.
30. White Desert National Park (Egypt) – it protects the White Desert known from a multitude of large white chalk rock formations, located within the Farafra depression. These stem-looking formations are the typical example of physical weathering in dry climes, where the wind carries the sand grains, which hit the rocks with strength. Everywhere, where the rock layer is soft enough is sheared, leaving harder rocks, which eventually create the mushroom-looking forms. This place, especially the elevated rim of the basin is considered the best place for watching the 2027 total solar eclipse because of the area, perfectly dedicated to a lot of scientific experiments and measurements, and also the extremely long duration of totality – 6m20s.
31. Thebes (Egypt) – this is an ancient city located in the Nile valley. There are quite a lot of interesting sites remaining in ancient times. The most interesting ones are definitely the Luxor Temple, Karnak Temple, and obviously the Valley of The Kings located outside of the city. The Valley of the Kings unveils a fantastic history of burning the pharaohs, for whom the rock-cut tombs were excavated. The area itself is beautiful because of the nice overlook of the lush vegetation in the Nile Valley. The local peaks might be the perfect choice for the 2027 total eclipse observation, because of its longest duration in the XXIth century on land – 6m22s.
C. ARABIAN PENINSULA
32. Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) – it’s an interesting city on the Red Sea shore, which by far is renowned for its historic center and the world’s tallest flagpole. In the near future, it will be recognizable also by the Jeddah Tower which is going to be finished soon, after delays. The construction will be similar to Burj Khalifa in its triangular shape. I think it can be a primary reason to see the 2027 total solar eclipse, particularly with this modern skyscraper.
33. Mecca (Saudi Arabia) – it’s the birthplace of the Islamic Prophet Muhammed and the holiest city in Islam, as this belief originated here in the VIIth century. This is the biggest pilgrimage center for Islam. Every physically and financially able Muslim should visit this place at least once in a lifetime. This is one of the five elements of Islam belief. The pilgrimage should take place during the Hajj – an annual Islamic pilgrimage. The pilgrimage lasts 3 days, but most of the pilgrims extend their stay by around a week and pray in Mecca and Medina. The Hajj occurs within the Dhu-al-Hijjah – the final, 12th month of the Islamic calendar, which is very sacred. In 2021 (1442), the Dhu-al-Hijah occurs between July 11 and August 8 with Hajj expected to begin on July 17. In 2027 (1448) the final month will occur between May 7 and June 5 with Hajj expected to begin on May 13. It means, that the pilgrimage days won’t coincide with the 2027 totality at all. However, if you are an Islam believer and would like to visit Mecca outside of the pilgrimage period, there is an option to watch the eclipsed Sun on August 2, at 75° altitude i.e. from the Great Mosque of Mecca.
34. Thula (Yemen) – this well-preserved town is on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List. The settlement is beautiful with a lot of traditional houses and mosques. These houses have usually between 3 and 5 floors and have been constructed tightly between each other, making the settlement compacted. The vast majority of homes feature sandstone facades. Quite a lot of them have been finished with a rich variety of carved and sculpture friezes, which are visible nicely from a distance. The overall landscape is stressed by the pink granite cliff towering above the city. Concluding, this place should be definitely considered for the 2027 total solar eclipse observation, which will occur in the early afternoon at 68° altitude.
35. Sana’a (Yemen) – the capital of Yemen is simply beautiful, especially its old town. The houses within the Old City have been built from stone and fired brick. They reach sometimes 8 stories. Their architecture features plaster openings, which decorate windows and doors. The Old City was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site. This area was inhabited more than 2500 years ago. The most representative landmark there is the Stone House. Besides the Old City, the place definitely worth attention is Al Saleh Mosque, which is the largest in the whole of Yemen and the most prominent object in Sanaa’s landscape. The totality is to occur at 67° altitude in the afternoon.
VIII. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JANUARY 26, 2028
A. SOUTH AMERICA
36. Sierra Negra (Chile) – this large shield volcano is located in the Galapagos archipelago. The shield volcanos form from the least viscous lavas, which make them wider than higher, unlike stratovolcanoes. The Sierra Negra volcano rises just above 1100m.a.s.l. but the caldera is nearly 7-9km wide. This is the most active volcano in the Galapagos. The caldera bed is filled with fresh-congealed lava because the volcano is active. The last eruption was in 2018. The view of the whole caldera full of condensed lava can be easily combined with the 2028 ring of fire, which is to be seen at just 14° altitude above the eastern horizon.
37. Jau National Park [Parque Nacional de Jau] (Brazil) – is a part of the World Heritage Site because of the unscathed Amazon rainforest, which is the largest tropical rainforest in the World. In vegetation type prevails dense rainforest. Sometimes we can encounter open rainforests and campinararas (shrubs and small trees) – typical for regions with very poor soil. The biggest tropical rainforest can be a perfect combination with the 2028 annular solar eclipse, which will occur in the late morning at an altitude of 56° above the horizon. Some parts of this park as well as other pieces of the Amazonas rainforest are located within the 2023 path of annularity too.
38. Ponta de Sao Lourenco (Portugal) – it’s the easternmost point of Madeira island, which looks beautiful because of the rock cliffs falling directly into the ocean. The backside of these cliffs is covered by herbaceous vegetation. Standing at the very end of this smallish peninsula (Baixas do Guincho), we can have a splendid panorama of these rocky cliffs and the mountainous island beyond. It seems to be an unforgettable place for chasing the 2028 ring of fire in the late afternoon at just 18° altitude.
39. Praia de Marinha (Portugal) – is one of the most emblematic beaches in Portugal and appears to be the most beautiful beach in Europe. The beach is famous for its limestone cliffs, a lot of pillars, rocky arches, grottos, and the quality of the water. The sandy beach itself is quite small, but the landscape around can be unforgettable. Despite the winter period, this place should be fairly considered for the 2028 annular solar eclipse observation, especially since it will occur in the late evening at just 9° above the southwestern horizon.
22. Ronda – read the 2027 total solar eclipse
23. Gibraltar – read the 2027 total solar eclipse
40. Alhambra (Spain) – it’s a fantastic palace and fortress located in Andalusia, which remains ancient Roman fortifications. The most representative place here is the citadel also known as the Alcazaba, which is the oldest part of the city. Another notable site includes the royal palace complex. The town looks nice with the panorama of the Sierra de Segura mountain range located beyond. Unfortunately, it won’t be the view for the 2028 ring of fire, because it will occur shortly before sunset, just 4 deg above the horizon.
41. Tabernas Desert (Spain) – it’s a semi-arid desert located in Andalusia. The rains are very rare, but torrential here. In turn, the fast-flowing water shapes the local relief, which looks beautiful. It’s driven by the geological features of the area, namely the mountains are built from marls and sandstones, which don’t retain moisture. This is probably the one place in Europe where we can meet scorpions and tarantulas. Don’t be scared of them during the cold period on January 26, when the annular eclipse will be visible here just before sunset at 4° altitude only.
The annular solar eclipse will be visible probably also from the highest points of Sierra de Tramuntana at Mallorca.
IX. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JULY 22, 2028
42. Simpson Desert (NT, QLD) – it’s a large area of dry, red sandy plain interrupted by extended bars of sand with a lot of dunes, known as the world’s long parallel dunes. These dunes are static, so vegetation can develop. They are oriented north-south and can reach 50m altitude. The desert is underlain by the Great Artesian Basin, which is one of the largest inland drainages in the world. The desert is partially protected. The biggest area of conservation is the Munga-Thirri National Park, known formerly as the Simpson Desert National Park. The totality will occur twice across this area, both in 2028 and 2037. The highest dune is the Big Red Sand Dune, located 35km west of Birdsville, where both in 2028 and 2037 the eclipse will reach 99% obscuration. On July 22 2028 the greatest eclipse will occur in the afternoon at around 44° altitude in 2037 around midday.
43. Blue Mountains National Park (NSW) – the area protects the Blue Mountains. Telling the truth, we have no true mountains there, as the whole region consists of the big, uplifted plateau dissected by a number of large rivers. The region lies on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range and is most visited in New South Wales. It means, that the 2028 totality can be crowded. The name of Blue Mountains is quite prosaic – it comes from the blue tinge the range takes on when viewed from a distance. Obviously, this phenomenon is common worldwide because of light scattering reasons and the atmosphere’s properties. The view of the 2028 annularity seems to be promising from this area, as the eclipsed Sun will be at around 30° above the north-western horizon in the afternoon.
44. Sydney Opera House (NSW) – opened formally in 1973 is today the biggest place for multiple performance venues in Australia, like the New Year’s fireworks and other 1500 performances annually. In 2007 the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The building features a modern design including large precast concrete shells composed of a section of a sphere. In the same year, Sydney Opera House was one of the other 20 finalists of the New7Wonders of the World campaign. The total solar eclipse will occur at about 29° altitude. The best observation venue appears to be Mr. Macquarie’s Chair if we want to have the totality in the same frame as the Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge beyond.
B. NEW ZEALAND
45. Fiordland National Park – it’s the largest and most beautiful park in New Zealand. It occupies most of the Te Wahipounamu area, which is known for the best modern representation of the original flora and fauna of Gondwana and is almost not a populated area in New Zealand i.e. because of one of the most seismic activity worldwide. The Fiordland National Park covers the area, which was shaped during the latest ice age when most of the current fiords were carved by glaciers. The Milford Sound appears to be the most spectacular venue for the eclipse-watching, especially, since the totality will occur just 10° above the horizon and probably will be perfectly aligned to the hills surrounding the fiord.
46. Mount Aspiring National Park – another beautiful national park in New Zealand, which protects the southern part of the Southern Alps, where peaks reach about 3000m.a.s.l and potentially are fantastic places for watching the fleeting umbra from the distance, even above the sea. On the other hand, climbing them might be a challenge for most people, who can consider observation venues in the beautiful valleys. The totality will occur around 10° above the horizon.
47. Lake Wakatipu – it’s the longest lake in New Zealand. This is the finger lake featuring an elongated shape filling up the glacially deepened valley. This lake is renowned for its scenic views because it’s totally surrounded by mountains. The totality on July 22, 2028, will occur in the late afternoon when the Sun will be about 10° above the horizon.
X. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JUNE 1, 2030
A. NORTH AFRICA
48. Grand Erg Oriental (Algeria/Tunisia) – it’s otherwordly “a field of sand dunes“. The area has dimensions 600x200km, which means that tourists can enjoy a grand “sand sea” with dunes reaching even 400m altitude in places. The sand is loose and difficult to cross, so access might be restricted. The Grand Erg Oriental doesn’t have so many routes to pass through then. The annular eclipse occurs shortly after sunrise at just 4° altitude. It can be a fantastic reason to wake up early this day and set off at the crack of dawn from your hotel.
49. La Valetta (Malta) – this is the second southernmost capital in Europe after Nicosia and the smallest capital city in the European Union. The cityscape is beautiful with a lot of streets and piazzas, which look quite compacted when looking from the distance. The city is perched on the higher ground between two natural harbors. The most prominent landmarks, which fit into the local landscape are the Basilica of Saint Dominic and the monumental fortifications surrounding the city. The 2030 ring of fire will be observed in the morning at around 10° altitude, so it’s a big likelihood, that you will catch it with the panoramic view of La Valetta.
50. Olympia (Greece) – a beautiful archeologic site, where ancient games were held. Today we can find there around 70 significant buildings, regrettably with ruins of the Temple of Zeus, which remained only as a group of stones. The excavations here began in the XVIIIth century. Before, the site was covered by 8m deep alluvial deposits. This place can be considered for watching the 2030 annular solar eclipse, which will peak around 17° above the southeastern horizon.
51. Delphi (Greece) – this is the ancient sacred place, where. This place was a Greek sanctuary dedicated to the god Apollo. Ancient Greeks considered Delphi as the centre of the contemporary world. Delphi is situated between two towering rocks of Mount Parnassus known as shining rocks. It’s in my opinion a perfect place for arranging the 2030 annular solar eclipse observation when the greatest eclipse will occur at 19° altitude in the morning.
52. Acropolis (Greece) – is a beautiful ancient citadel located on the rocky outcrop towering above Athens. It references two Greek words comprising the acropolis meaning, where Akron means the highest point and polis – the city. The Acropolis of Athens is a house for the world’s oldest weather station, which is known here as the Tower of Winds. The 2030 annular solar eclipse will occur in the morning, 20° about the southeastern horizon.
53. Mount Athos (Greece) – a mountain and peninsula in northern Greece, which is an important center of Eastern Orthodox monasticism, as it’s home to 20 monasteries. The peninsula is really mountainous, and the highest peak – Mount Athos rises more than 2000m.a.s.l. giving a fantastic view of the northern part of the Aegean Sea. The annularity will occur as high as 21° above the horizon in the morning. It will be a good option to combine the eclipsed Sun with one of the monasteries.
54. Haga Sofia (Turkey) – the grand late antique place of worship located in the European part of Istambul. Formerly it was the Church of Haga Sophia, but under Ottoman rule, the minarets were added and the object has been turned into a mosque, which remains till today except for the 1935-2018 period when Haga Sophia was a museum. The 2030 annularity will occur here at around 25° altitude giving a chance to catch Haga Sofia with the solar ring.
55. Troy (Turkey) – is an ancient Greek city, where the Trojan War took place, known from Greek mythology. Troy was located in present-day Turkey and characterized by high walls and towers, which presumably were erected between 3000 and 2600 BC. Today, we can see the remnants of all the elements of the big citadel, which is comprised of former Troy. It’s a good spot for watching the 2030 annular solar eclipse on June 1st morning at 23° altitude.
56 Pergamon Ancient City (Turkey) – a fantastic historical spot standing on a lofty isolated hill. Formerly rich and powerful city and capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon in the Hellenistic Age. Because of its location above the Caicus River Valley, the city had a great strategic value. Today, we can visit incredible objects of this former city like the Theatre of Pergamon, the Sanctuary of Dionysus, the Temple of Athena, and the Trajaneum. 2030 will be an unforgettable occasion to admire these sites combined with the annular eclipse view at 24° altitude.
57. Swallow’s Nest (Ukraine) – it’s a small decorative castle located near Yalta featuring a neo-gothic design. The castle became a symbol of the Aurora Cliffs and also the symbol of Crimea’s southern coastline. The 2030 annular solar eclipse will occur in the morning at around 30° altitude.
58. Lake Baikal – it’s a long, rift lake located near Irkutsk. It’s the world’s largest freshwater lake by volume, containing about 22-23% of the world’s fresh surface water, more than all of the North American Great Lakes combined. It’s also the world’s deepest lake at 1642m deep. It’s a visible sign of the Baical Rift Zone, which was formed around 25-30mln years ago, becoming the most ancient in geological history. The 2030 annular solar eclipse occurs in the afternoon when the Sun will be around 47° above the southwestern horizon.
XI. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER 25, 2030
59. Spitzkoppe (Namibia) – it’s a beautiful landscape of inselbergs and other bald granite peaks in the western part of the country. The main outcrop is called the Matterhorn of Namibia, it rises about 700m above the desert floor. The granite, which builds all of these protrusions counts about 120mln years. It can be quite an original place for watching the 2030 totality which will occur at just 14,5° altitude in the morning.
60. Maloti- Drakensberg National Park/uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park (Lesotho/South Africa) – both national parks bordering each other, but protecting the same area – Drakensberg Mountains. The area has been UNESCO-listed because of its dramatic vistas, where basaltic table mountains and buttresses are cut by deep valleys. This area is also the most important catchment area for South Africa because of its water quality. The Drakensberg Mountains were home to the San people, who lived here for over 4000 years leaving behind the largest group of paintings in Africa south of the Sahara. The totality here will occur in the morning at around 32° altitude above the horizon.
95. Lake Gairdner National Park – read about the 2038 total solar eclipse
XII. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF MAY 21, 2031
61. Meenakshi Temple (India) – the temple is roughly in the center of the ancient city of Madurai. Meenakshi Temple is one of the oldest temples in India, dated 2500 years back, and hosts millions of tourists every year. The temple is a masterpiece of Dravidian architecture featured by a large complex divided into a number of quadrangular enclosures supported by high brick walls. The 2031 annular solar eclipse will occur almost in zenith near mid-day, which is unfavorable for taking the photo of this temple with the eclipsed Sun in the same frame.
62. Langkawi Sky Bridge (Malaysia) – this bridge is considered among the longest curved pedestrian bridges in the world. The overall length of this bridge is roughly 125m and the width is 1.8m. The walkway has been formed from steel and concrete panels. The bridge is suspended by 8 cables from an 81.5m single pylon. The bridge deck is hung 600 meters above sea level giving formidable views of Langkawi island and surrounding areas. It seems to be an incredible venue for watching the 2031 annular solar eclipse at 38° above the western horizon.
63. Taman Negara National Park (Malaysia) – the best eco-destination in Malaysia, where the subject of protection is one of the oldest rainforests in the world. The age of this rainforest is 130mln years, which means, that it used to accommodate dinosaurs. Taman Negara National Park is the biggest national park in Malaysia. Because it’s the best tourist destination in this country, I would also recommend watching the annular solar eclipse in 2031, which will definitely variegate the late afternoon scene about 33° above the western horizon.
64. Kepulauan Togean [Togean Islands] (Indonesia) – this archipelago of 56 islands lies almost completely outside of the 2031 path of annularity. The southernmost part will lie inside antumbra. The beauty of these islands is stressed by omnipresent rainforests and extended coral reefs, easily accessible from golden sandy beaches. The greatest eclipse will be seen here in the late afternoon at about 10° above the horizon.
XIII. HYBRID SOLAR ECLIPSE OF NOVEMBER 14, 2031
65. Coiba Island (Panama) – another beautiful island, which can be perfect for watching the eclipse. Coiba Island is full of mangrove forests, beaches, and coral reefs. The eclipse chasers will be fortunate to watch an unforgettable and broken ring of fire just 3° above the horizon before the sunset. The final obscuration will be 99.1%, although it’s not the biggest one for this eclipse, passing the Pacific almost thoroughly. About 630km towards the west, at Cocos Island, the greatest eclipse will reach 99,4% being just 5 km outside of the path!
XIV. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF MARCH 20, 2034
20. Lake Nokoue (Benin) – read about the 2027 annular solar eclipse
21. Lagos (Nigeria) – read about the 2027 annular solar eclipse
66. Waza National Park (Cameroon) – this area encompasses the north corner of Cameroon and the southern part of the “Chad depression” within the Savanna zone. The park is depicted by grasslands, spark forests, and sand dunes in the western part. The park protects one of the largest mammal populations in central Africa. If you are a safari lover, you should definitely consider this location for watching the 2034 totality, where probably the animal behavior will draw your attention more than the eclipsed Sun itself. Alternatively, you can set up somewhere between the volcanic plugs near Rhumsiki village. The greatest eclipse will occur at about 67° altitude in the late morning.
67. Ennedi Plateau (Chad) – this area belongs to the Ennedi Massif in the northeast of Chad. The massif is composed of sandstone and wealth with many various geological structures including towers, pillars, bridges, and arches. This diversified landscape can be a good place for admiring the total solar eclipse in 2034, which will occur roughly at midday. Unfortunately, not a whole area will fall in the path of totality, but these mountains and valleys, which won’t, Baily’s beads should be also spectacular within the grazing zone.
68. Persepolis (Iran) – it’s the former capital of the First Persian Empire between 550 and 330 BC. The complex is elevated on a walled platform with five “palaces” or halls of varying sizes and grand entrances. It was a grand ceremonial complex occupied seasonally. Today we can see the ruins of a number of colossal buildings, constructed in dark grey marble. The site can be considered seriously for the 2034 total solar eclipse observation. The greatest phase will occur in the afternoon at about 38° altitude.
69. Dasht-e-Lut [Lut Desert] (Iran) – it’s a large salt desert famous for the “salt castles” – the rocky protrusions visible everywhere. They have a volcanic genesis. During the dry period, we can also see a lot of evaporites here. Recently this area has been announced as the hottest place on Earth with a temperature of +70,7°C measured in 2005. Fortunately, the total solar eclipse will occur on March 20, far away from the hottest period, but it might be still quite hot, especially since the event will take place in the afternoon at 31-32° altitude. The southern part of the desert won’t experience the totality, unfortunately.
70. Gulmarg Valley (India) – it’s a beautiful cup-shaped valley nestled in the Pir Panjal Range in Kashmir. In the Kashmiri language, it means the “meadow of flowers“. The valley features a post-glacial landscape with a lot of lakes. It can be a good place for watching the total solar eclipse in 2034, which will occur at 15° altitudes in the afternoon,
71. Sonamarg Valley (India) – it’s another notable tourist destination in Kashmir because of its beautiful alpine meadows and post-glacial landscape. The wide valley was formerly used as the silk road between Kashmir and Tibet. The name in Kashmiri means literally “the meadows of gold“, which is derivative of the aforementioned silk road. This is the most popular destination in Kashmir, so it should be considered as the 2034 totality observation in the late afternoon at around 13° altitude.
72. Hoh Xil (China) – an isolated region in Tibet, which is UNESCO listed as “the largest and highest plateau in the world“. The region covers 83000 square kilometers, which corresponds to the area of Austria. The region is predominantly endorheic with big lakes like Wulanwula Lake, which lies roughly in the middle of the 2034 path of totality. The southeastern side of the plateau is the major headwater source for the Yangtze River. The plateau is surrounded by a number of late-Cenozoic volcanoes, which built the sparking mountain ranges. The total solar eclipse of March 20, 2034, will occur here at sunset. If you are planning the observation, make sure, that you aren’t on too low grounds.
XV. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF SEPTEMBER 2, 2035
73. Yungang Grottoes – ancient Chinese Buddhist temple grottoes in the rock. These objects are the perfect example of rock-cut architecture, where all structures, buildings, and sculptures have been created by excavating solid rock. These ones are dated between the 5th and 6th centuries and excavated on the south face of a stone cliff. Their dimensions are about 18m in height and 790m in length. The whole complex was included in the UNESCO list because it is deemed as the “masterpiece of early Chinese Buddhist art”. This “masterpiece” lies inside the 2035 path of totality, where the greatest eclipse will be observed at about 29° altitude.
74. Temple of Heaven – an imperial complex of religious buildings situated in the center of Beijing. This is another complex listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site, because of its architecture depicts the great importance of the evolution of “the World’s greatest civilization”. The most representative part, being visible from a distance is the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests. The total solar eclipse in 2035 will occur in the morning at 31° altitude above the eastern horizon.
75. Great Wall of China – it’s a beautiful and massive series of fortifications that rose along the northern borders of ancient Chinese states in order to protect from various nomadic groups, that could invade from the Eurasian Steppe. This wall was built in steps between VIIth BC and XVIth AD. Apart from defense, the Great Wall of China acted as border control. Thanks to this China could impose duties on goods transported along the silk road. The most interesting is the total length of the Great Wall of China, which is over 21000km according to the archeological survey carried out in 2012. The fortifications lie inside the 2035 path of totality, where the view of the eclipsed Sun from about 31° altitude will be so spectacular I guess.
B. NORTH KOREA
76. Juche Tower – rose in 1982 for the celebration of Kim-il-sung’s 70th birthday. The architectural style is picking up stone pagodas in premodern Korea. It is 170m in height, which places it as the 2nd tallest monumental column in the world. The torch on top of the tower is always lit. For the eclipse chasers, the most important is the viewing platform just below the torch, which overlooks a panorama of the whole Pyongyang. The 2035 totality will occur in the late morning at about 40 altitude above the horizon. It’s highly likely, that you catch the solar corona in the same frame as Juche Tower when standing on the ground. However, I would prefer to see the whole capital of North Korea from the top, when the totality occurs.
XVI. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JULY 13, 2037
77. Uluru [Ayers Rock] – it’s a large sandstone formation rising abruptly from the flat surface around it. In a geological sense, there is a problem with the classification of Uluru. It’s something between inselberg and monolith, although more often Ayers Rock is classified as the freestanding mountain, which is homogenous. It’s the most iconic landform in Australia, which was created about 500mln years ago on the same basis as the Himalayas Mountains. Next, the long-lasting erosion, caused by the lack of vegetation made this mountain range disappear leaving just Uluru and adjacent Kata Tjuta formations. Because of its landscape uniquity, Ayers Rock is undeniably the best place for watching the 2037 total solar eclipse, which will occur just about 40° above the northern horizon near midday.
78. Watarrka National Park – it’s a beautiful park protecting one of the most spectacular canyons in Central Australia. The much-visited is Kings Canyon where walls are over 100m in height. The part of this gorge is a sacred place for Aborigines. The whole protected landscape with a multitude of rugged ranges, rock holes, and gorges can be an unforgettable spot for watching the total solar eclipse in 2037. This place is on the other side of the umbral path against Uluru. The greatest eclipse will occur at about 41° altitude above the northern horizon.
42. Simpson Desert – read about the 2028 total solar eclipse
79. Main Range National Park – it’s a part of the UNESCO site covering the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, which are the World’s oldest and most extensive rainforests. Another reason for protection is the part of mountains, known here as the “Scenic Rim” surrounding the Brisbane agglomeration. This scenic area can be considered as the venue for watching the totality in 2037 which will occur in the afternoon at 36° altitude above the north-western horizon.
80. Sky Point observation deck – the viewing attraction of the tallest skyscraper in Australia – the Q1 residential building, which is the tallest residential building in the World. It’s also the second tallest building in the southern hemisphere, which counts 322.5 m in height. The Sky Point observation deck is 230m above Surfers Paradise Beach. If you like panoramic views, this venue should be definitely considered for watching the 2037 total solar eclipse phenomenon at 41° altitude, although the space for 400 people only doesn’t sound great. Alternatively, you can go to the Cape Byron Lighthouse and be elevated just 50m.a.s.l.
81. Lord Howe Island – this is the volcanic remnant in the Tasmanian Sea. The island was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its outstanding beauty. The island is covered by mostly untouched forests. Besides the main island, there are another 28 smaller islets, from which the most beautiful is the Ball’s Pyramid – the erosional remnant of a shield volcano, rising impressively at 562m.a.s.l. It’s the world’s largest sea stack. On the other hand, the highest peaks on the island remain somewhat the Faroe Islands landscape, but in a much warmer version. Because of the uniquity of volcanic forms, this island as well as its surroundings, especially with Ball’s Pyramid should be considered for the 2037 total solar eclipse cruise. The greatest phase will occur in the afternoon at about 30° altitude above the north-western horizon. Unfortunately, especially near the Ball’s Pyramid, it won’t last so long.
B. NEW ZEALAND
82. Tongariro National Park – the oldest national park in New Zealand and obviously UNESCO-listed. The area of protection is mostly the North Island Volcanic Plateau. There are three active volcanoes, which are a result of internal tectonic movements. This is exactly the zone, where the Pacific Plate subducts under the Australian Plate. The highest volcanic areas feature also glacial and postglacial landscapes. The totality of July 13, 2037, will occur in the late afternoon, just at 13° altitude above the north-western horizon.
XVII. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JANUARY 5, 2038
A. CENTRAL AMERICA
83. Gran Parque Natural Topes de Collantes (Cuba) – a beautiful nature reserve park in the Escambrary Mountains in the central region of Cuba. The landscape features hills covered by tropical rainforests from the north and agricultural areas from the south. Moreover, we can find here a lot of caves, grottos, and canyons. This area is UNESCO-listed and known also for the sugar plantation, especially in the southern part of the park (Valley of the Sugar Mills). This area can be considered for watching the 2038 annular solar eclipse, which will occur roughly at sunrise. If you will place yourself at one of the highest peaks in this region, you will see the beautiful panorama of the Escambrary Mountains combined with the rare ring of fire.
84. Soufriere (Saint Lucia) – is a small ferry and cozy town in the eastern Caribbean Sea and western part of Saint Lucia island. The panoramic landscape of the town includes two characteristic steep mountains – the Pitons. The Pitons are volcanic plugs created by hardened magma within the vent of the active volcano. They are composed nicely in the local landscape. If you are planning to watch the 2038 annular solar eclipse there, the best place to chase the Sun with the Soufriere landscape will be somewhere towards Anse Chastanet Beach. The greatest eclipse will occur at 22° altitude.
85. Tai National Park (Ivory Coast) – covers one of the last primary rainforests in Africa. It’s also the largest island of forest in Africa, remaining relatively intact. The diversity of flora and fauna decided to place this park on the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The park is almost totally forested. The path of the 2038 annularity goes in the northern part of the area, which is drier than the southern part. The eclipse will occur in the afternoon at 47° altitude.
86. Pendjari National Park (Benin) – is known for its wildlife and is home to some of the last populations of big animals like African forest elephants, lions, hippopotami, or African buffaloes. The part is a part of a large WAP complex extended between Togo, Burkina Faso, and Niger, which is a transboundary UNESCO complex. The typical landscape of the park is Savannah, occupied mostly by the deciduous wild syringa tree, which loses its leaves during the dry season. The area is also diversified by the cliffs belonging to the Atakora Escarpment. It will be good to be nearby and try to capture these cliffs with the ring of fire shining at 33° altitude.
87. W National Park (Benin/Burkina Faso/Niger) – this national park shared by three countries is also a part of the W-Arly-Pendjari complex but lies on the opposite side. The park protects the area along the Niger River meander, which is W-shaped, giving the name origin of this park. The area is predominantly inhabited by humans and is known for large mammals like African buffalo, hippopotamus, African leopard, West African lion, and warthog. It’s a perfect destination for watching the setting annular ring of fire in 2038 in combination with some safari adventure. The greatest eclipse will occur at 32° altitude.
88. Air and Tenere Natural Reserve (Niger) -this UNESCO-listed area protects the crossing of the Tenere Desert with the Air Mountains in the Saharian part of Niger. The Tenere Desert comprises a vast plain of sand. On the other hand, the Air Mountains are remnants of the peralkaline rock intrusions, giving them a dark appearance. They stand out in start relief as topographic heights are surrounded by vast sandy lowlands. The elevated areas of these mountains are distinguished as the greeny lands amidst dry plains because rainfalls are slightly higher here. The place seems to be very good for admiring the 2038 annular solar eclipse in the late afternoon at 21° altitude. The deep partial eclipse as a thin solar crescent will repeat barely a half year later when annularity will miss this area from the northeast.
89. Lakes of Ounianga (Chad) – the UNESCO-listed complex of 18 lakes straddling the mountains of West Tibesti and Ennedi East. Despite the hyperarid desert conditions, the lakes exist. The reason behind this is the underground layer of water is a primary supplier for these lakes. They are also the remnant of a much wetter climate, which featured this region in ancient times. Because the underground water supply is quite irregular, they vary in chemical features. Some of them are salt, but other ones are more life-friendly. The area can be considered also for watching the 2038 annular solar eclipse in the late afternoon at 10° altitude.
XVIII. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JULY 2, 2038
A. SOUTH AMERICA
8. Coffee Cultural Landscape (Columbia) – read about the 2023 annular solar eclipse
90. Valle de Cocora [Cocora Valley] (Columbia) – this beautiful area lies in the Central Cordillera of the Andean mountains. The valley is protected within the borders of the Los Nevados Natural National Park. The subjects of protection here are endemics, while wax palm, which is the tallest monocot in the world. The trunk of this palm tree is covered by wax. The rare appearance of wax palms can be the reason for watching the 2038 July annular solar eclipse from this area, especially since the ring of fire will be visible in the morning at 10° altitude.
91. Arlit (Niger) – the industrial town in northwestern Niger in Sahara, which grows up on the Uranium mine. Uranium was discovered here in 1969. The uranium has been exported mainly to France. The open mines caused an impact on the local environment and landscape. If you wish to watch the solar eclipse accompanied by artificial-shaped mountains, then this place will be the best for you in July 2038, when the ring of fire will shine from about 44° altitude above the western horizon.
92. Timia (Niger) – this town is well-placed on the other side of the Air Mountains discussed earlier. This is the place, where another annular eclipse is to be observed, 2nd in a row after just a half-year break in 2038. This time the event will occur in the afternoon, at 41° altitude above the western horizon. You have an unforgettable occasion to place yourself in one of the valleys nearby, which are beautiful here. Alternatively, you can pick up the local fort or former town of Assode with some nice landmarks remaining.
93. Omo National Park (Ethiopia) – lies on the west bank of the Omo River, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site after the discovery of the earliest known fossil fragments (circa 195 000 years old) of Homo Sapiens. The park is home to a variety of wildlife with an excellent opportunity of viewing it. The large herds of elephants, zebras, buffalos, and gazelles live here. You can also meet lions, hyenas, giraffes, hippopotami, and warthogs. The major drawback of this park is the almost complete lack of tourist infrastructure. The park is called “the most remote park in Ethiopia“, as it still remains not easily reachable. Only a few Ethiopian tourist agencies can arrange trips to this park. The safari there can be an unforgettable challenge rewarding so spectacular pictures of the wildlife, scene, and ring of fire shining just 7° above the western horizon.
94. Great Rift Valey (Ethiopia) – is a branch of the East African Rift, which is an active continental rift zone. Its development began around the onset of the Miocene 22 – 25 mln years ago. The Ethiopian rift valley is about 80km wide and bordered from 2 sides by large and discontinuous faults giving rise to major tectonic escarpments separating the rift floor from the surrounding plateaus – Ethiopian to the north and Somalian to the south. In the basin of the rift valley, a few lakes have been developed. They are essential to the survival of the local people. It’s good to place yourself at some panoramic view of the valley, especially since the annularity on July 2, 2038, will occur just before sunset at about 5° altitude.
XIX. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF DECEMBER 26, 2038
95. Lake Gairdner National Park (Southern Australia) – protects a large saline system comprised of 3 salt lakes in a totally arid area, surrounded by red sad hills, which is extremely hot during the summer. The access to this park is limited because of pastoral leases, although the eclipse chasers shouldn’t be really worried about it. The path of totality passes just across the southern part of the biggest lake, which features the easiest public access. We can get there by dirt road, which seems to be good enough for normal vehicles. Lake Gairdner is Australia’s 3rd largest lake. The specificity of the conditions, where the lake’s surface seems to be brighter than a normal lake can allow us to carry out some interesting optical experiments during the eclipse, which I am personally looking forward to. It will be definitely an occasion to repeat some of them after the 2027 eclipse in Egypt. I would advise placing your equipment somewhere in the hills surrounding this interesting part of the lake. The greatest eclipse will occur quite high above the eastern horizon – at 49° altitude before noon. The park lies also within the 2030 path of totality. 8 years earlier there will be the majority of the national park area will be plunged into the Moon’s shadow.
XX. ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JUNE 21, 2039
96. Kenali Fjords National Park – the park, which protects mostly Harding Icefield located in the Kenai Mountains. This ice field spawns up to 40 glaciers of all types. This is one of the four remaining icefields in the USA and the largest located entirely within the US borders. All the glaciers originated from this vast ice sheet that fell directly into the Gulf of Alaska filling up the fjords. The fiords make this glaciated coastline deeply indented, which is also within the borders of this national park. Another important landscape factor in this area is the tectonic background. Kenai Mountains are the output of the Pacific Plate subduction beneath the North American Plate. On June 21, 2039, the morning will be so beautiful if we combine our glacial landscape with the ring of fire rising at 21° altitude.
97. Denali National Park – formerly known as Mc Kinley National Park located in interior Alaska. The area of protection is especially the Alaska Range with Denali (Mount McKinley), the highest peak in North America and also the third most prominent and third most isolated peak in the world after Mt Everest and Aconcagua. The Alaska Range is shaped by a lot of glaciers and glacial valleys running southwards out of the main ridge. Alaska Range is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, surrounding mostly the rim of the Pacific Ocean with a lot of volcanic activity and earthquakes. The annular solar eclipse will occur in the morning at 25° altitude above the northeastern horizon. It’s an unforgettable occasion to catch Mount Denali and the solar ring in the same frame.
B. SCANDINAVIAN PENINSULA
98. Lofoten (Norway) – another beautiful archipelago, which is a horst ridge of bedrock featuring distinctive scenery with dramatic mountains and peaks as well as sheltered bays. The sea around Lofoten hosts significant oil reserves. Moreover, the world’s largest deepwater coral reef is located outside of the archipelago. The total length of the archipelago is about 175km and a car is the best option for visiting it well. The 2039 annular solar eclipse passes across the southern part of the archipelago, which gives a fantastic occasion to combine beautiful sightseeing with eclipse observation at just a 17° altitude in the afternoon.
99. Aland Islands (Finland) – this is an archipelago located at the entry of the Gulf of Bothnia, which includes about 6700 islands. The whole archipelago is a fantastic example of the skerry coast, popular along the Finnish and Swedish coastline. The skerry coast was created by partially submerging the postglacial sheepback area. Every single sheepback or group of sheepbacks (roche mountainees) acts as an island. That’s why we have thousands of single isles across the Gulf of Bothnia and the northern part of the Baltic Sea in general. They are predominantly forested, but also reach the underlying rocks, being plucked or quarried by heavy glacier bodies. This landscape can be unforgettable in combination with an annular solar eclipse which will occur at an altitude of 9° above the horizon before sunset. I would also recommend visiting Kastelholm Castle – the biggest landmark in this archipelago.
XXI. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF DECEMBER 15, 2039
100. Ross Ice Shelf (Antarctica) – it’s the largest ice shelf in Antarctica, which corresponds nearly to the size of France. Moreover is several hundred meters thick with a nearly vertical ice front to the open sea extended at around 600km and with 15-50m height above the water surface. We can see only 10% of the ice. This is the largest ice sheet in the world, which is constantly fed by inland glaciers, making it connected permanently with the Antarctic landmass. This place seems to be perfect for watching the totality, especially from the plane, and observing the fantastic optical phenomena related to the total solar eclipse. The totality will occur at just 17° altitude in the afternoon.
CONCLUSIONS & DISCLAIMER
I have described 100 places and included the other 400 on the map, which you can find here. Of 28 annular & hybrid & total eclipses occurring in this period of time, 21 were seriously considered. However, I would like to put some disclaimer here, because I was focused on geographical and tourist places. The selection has a subjective character, so you might disagree with me in relation to my selection. The other thing, which was omitted here is especially the orientation of the object against the solar position at the moment of the greatest eclipse. These things have been generalized here. If you wish to see the eclipse event in any interesting place described here or listed on the map, you have to double-check it with Google Earth or the 3D layer of Google Chrome where available. The last thing, which hasn’t been covered in this presentation is the most important thing frankly – the weather. Some places, in fact, are known for really good weather, and you can be sure that your potential observation will be successful. Unfortunately, there are a lot of places, where atmospheric conditions can vary, making your observation like a crapshoot. In order to check the typical weather in your potential observation place, I highly recommend you to read this article, where all the weather matters have been covered in terms of the planning of astronomical expeditions like this. Another thing missing is the access, which also varies across all the places considered.
Concluding, you can treat this text as a suggestion of your destination during the eclipse events between 2021 and 2040. It’s not a full guide.